Syllabus. Health Care “Transformational” Management (2013)

BUS 9100:  Business and Society

Health Care “Transformational” Management 


 1. RESPONDING TO HEALTHCARE REFORM – A Strategy Guide for Health Care Leaders, By Daniel B/ McLaughlin, HAP  ACHE Management Series  Read one chapter per week starting with Chapter 1, Week

 2. Harvard Case Studies

The Cradle Dilemma, kel511

 Performance Management at Intermountain Healthcare, HBS 9-609-103

 Newton-Wellsley Hospital, HBS 9-609-088

 Evidence-Based Management, HBS R0601E

 What More Evidence Do You Need?, HBS R1005X

 Collaborating to Improve, HBS 9-608-054

 Jeanette Clough at Mount Auburn Hospital, HBS 9-406-068

 3. Additional readings posted on Blackboard; Web sites are also assigned for some sessions. 

 4. “Doctor, Did You Wash Your Hands?”  

Visiting Professors
(* Program Graduate)

Jeffrey Kraut*

Senior Vice President for Strategy of the North Shore-LIJ Health System and Associate Dean for Strategy for the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine

 – “North Shore-LIJ Health System’s strategy to  maintain  its leadership position under health care reform”?

Frank Goldstein*

Vice President, Physician Services, Meridian Health

 – “Converting hospital based physician practices from FFS to Patient Centered Medical Homes“

Annette Catino*

President & CEO, QualCare Alliance Networks, Inc.

– “Obamacare from the Payers perspective“

Carmine Asparro*

Principal in charge of the managed care consulting practice, OnPoint Partners

– “Provider and health plan strategies with Health Insurance Exchanges“

David Florman*

Partner of Florman Tannen LLC

–  “Population health management – organizational transformation in the health care reform era“

Jeffrey Menkes*

Senior Vice President ,System Network Development, Montefiore Medical Center

– “Lessons Learned as a  “seller” now “buyer” under Obamacare“

Joel Seligman

President and CEO of Northern Westchester Hospital

 – “Northern Westchester Hospital Center’s strategy to  maintain  its leadership position under health care reform“

Lee Perlman

Executive Vice President of Administration and Chief Financial Officer of the Greater New York Hospital Association;  President of GNYHA Ventures, Inc.; and CEO of Happtique

 – “Creating Value: GPOs and the Business and Politics of Health Care”

Section Objectives

To learn the basics about the American health care system

To understand the implications of the Affordable Care Act

To learn to use the Case Study method as an analytical tool

To start using an “evidence-based” approach to management

To  be a successful contributor in small group  meetings

To get comfortable  being a discussion leader

To meet and interact with industry leaders (your future bosses)

To begin a personal  career diary of  “Lessons Learned”

Section Paradigm

Using the CASE STUDY METHOD the course presentations by Professor Metsch and the Visiting Professors address COMPLEX PROBLEMS and the value of LESSONS LEARNED.

Case Study types: original Case Studies prepared by Prof. Metsch; Case Studies presented by senior health administrators (Visiting Professors); and iconic Harvard Case Studies.

Sessions are comprised of two complementary parts paired to integrate the Case Studies with Student Learning Outcomes and the Course Objectives. 

The Case Study Method

Cases attempt to reflect the various pressures and considerations that professionals of all varieties confront in the workplace.

Using complex, realistic open-ended problems as a focus, cases are designed to challenge you and help you develop and practice skills that you may need in your future careers.

Cases are also an excellent way to see how abstract principles learned in class are applied to real world situations.

Remember that case assignments involve a different kind of learning than other assignments. There is no one single answer and sometimes even the issue is deliberately not stated clearly.

Complex Problems

situations where the decision-maker must integrate or reconcile at least two competing priorities that may not be linear or complementary

having to reach agreement on goals while simultaneously evaluating options

where goals are clear but political support is not

where the definition of the problem keeps changing and consensus has to constantly be reestablished

where there are so many variables it is difficult to determine the actual possible outcomes

various combinations/ permutations of the above

Lessons Learned
  Start a diary of 3 Lessons Learned each week from the following categories:

•       –  the Visiting Professor and/ or ProfM 

•       –  the course text – RESPONDING TO HEALTHCARE REFORM

•       –  the articles posted on Blackboard or articles you find yourself

•       –  a Harvard Case Study (but only if different from the LLs you used in your 8 slide set)

•       –  an experience at work or elsewhere


                              •       USE 3 DIFFERENT CATEGORIES EACH WEEK!

•       For Week 12 use LLs from Final Case Study presentations ONLY (but not your own)     

                              •       Post on Blackboard after each class & email to 

•       then synthesize them into a Lessons Learned essay after the last class

Objective of Case Study Analysis =

To develop an evidence based theme (“thread”) through the slide set so the conclusion (“policy recommendation” or “project plan”) is accepted

How to Structure Your Harvard Case Study Homework Assignments
& Final Case Study Project

USING POWERPOINT (one slide on each of the following)

1.            Introduction, Situation, Background -This section describes the reason for the case study.

2.            Problem – This section states the main problems which need to be resolved. Some case studies include charts and graphs to illustrate key points.

3.            Questions/ Issues*

4.            Solution – This section describes the solution in detail, what changes were made, and the impact. Some case studies include charts and graphs to illustrate key solutions.

5.            Evaluation – This section recap the main benefits of the solution and the impact/ outcomes/ results. 

6.            Lessons Learned!

7.          Anchor Concepts

8.          Overlay 2013 ACA and “transformational” (if case was taking place today)

*Note: For final Student Case Presentations – #3  Questions/ Issues for class discussion before presenting #4 Solution

Week 1 – December 3rd

Case Study Method 1

Professor Metsch

“Project Management – The Hardest Part about Getting Started………… is Getting Started”

  (7 health care related vignettes with break-out groups to understand and practice case study analytics)

1.  Getting Started – “The First Day”

2.  Program Planning – Hoboken H1N1 “Swine Flu” Task Force

3.  Service Recovery – Hospital ER

4.  Professional Status – When the Nurse Wants to be Called “Doctor”

5/6.  Resource Allocation –  Food Sustainability Programs

7/8/9. NFP Board of Trustees – Program Evaluation, Changing Accreditation Agencies, New Service Opportunities

10. Joining a NFP Board of Trustees – What should you know?


Week 2 – December 10th

Case Study Method 2

Professor Metsch

Hudson Cradle,

Jubilee Center, &

Hudson County Child Abuse Prevention Center 

( 3 integrated health care related vignettes with break-out groups to further understand and practice case study analytics)

Homework*  The Cradle Dilemma kel511

(a health care related NFP CEO grapples with its “mission” in a turbulent environment)

Week 3 –December 17th

Case Study Method 3

Professor Metsch

Jersey City Medical Center (1989-2013)

( an original case study based on Dr. Metsch’s 17 year tenure as President and CEO of LibertyHealth/ Jersey City Medical Center, with break-out groups; to finish practicing case study analytics)



Jersey City Medical Center + Images of America + Len Vernon

Then scroll down and click on

Jersey City Medical Center – Google Books Result

Leonard F. Vernon – 2004 – ‎History

Leonard F. Vernon. IMAGES of America JERSEY CITY MEDICAL CENTER . 1,1 1.1 . . – . IMAGES of America JERSEY CITY MEDICAL CENTER Ono …

Week 4 – January 7th

Frank Goldstein

Vice President, Physician Services, Meridian Health

 – “Converting hospital based physician practices from FFS to Patient Centered Medical Homes”

(a case study on one system’s journey from fee-for-service to “population” health)

Homework*  Performance Management at Intermountain Healthcare HBS 9-609-103

(a mega system’s data driven approach to Medicare reimbursement) 

Week 5 – January 14th

Joel Seligman

President and CEO of Northern Westchester Hospital

 – “Northern Westchester Hospital Center’s strategy to  maintain  its leadership position under health care reform“

(A case study addressing the future of a high quality, free-standing, suburban community hospital)

Case Study Method 4 –

Professor Metsch

Restructuring a Failing Public Hospital in Hoboken

(a policy case study about how to stabilize a city-owned hospital)


New Jersey Commission on Rationalizing Health Care Resources, Final Report 2008

Commission on Health Care Facilities in the 21st Century

Week 6 – January 21st

Annette Catino

President & CEO, QualCare Alliance Networks, Inc.

– “Obamacare from the Payers perspective“

(Insurance Reform versus Healthcare Reform)

Homework * Newton-Wellesley Hospital HBS 9-609-088

(a CEO faces the challenge of multiple physician payment methods in one hospital)

Week 7 – January 28th

Jeffrey Kraut

Senior Vice President for Strategy of the North Shore-LIJ Health System and Associate Dean for Strategy for the Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine

 – “North Shore-LIJ Health System’s strategy to  maintain  its leadership position under health care reform”?

(A case study on the transformation of the Health System’s clinical and business models to succeed under value-based health reform.)

Case Study Method 5

Professor Metsch

Evidence Based Decision Making

(fostering a framework for inter-disciplinary collaboration) 


Evidence-Based Management – HBS R0601E

What More Evidence Do You Need? – HBS R1005X

Week 8 – February 4th
David Florman

Partner of Florman Tannen LLC

–  “Population health management – organizational transformation in the health care reform era“

(a health care consultant presents case studies on organizational adaptation)

Homework*  Collaborating to Improve HBS 9-608-054

(a hospital Chief Medical Officer’s efforts to introduce a new quality paradigm)

Homework*  Collaborating to Improve HBS 9-608-054

(a hospital Chief Medical Officer’s efforts to introduce a new quality paradigm)

Week 9 – February 11th

Lee Perlman

Executive Vice President of Administration and Chief Financial Officer of the Greater New York Hospital Association;  President of GNYHA Ventures, Inc.; and CEO of Happtique

 – “Creating Value: GPOs and the Business and Politics of Health Care“

(a senior health care trade association executive discusses creating new revenue streams for its members)

Case Study Method 6

Professor Metsch

The role of the Board of Trustees  

(a series of vignettes on “best practices” of NFP Boards of Trustees)


Week 10 – February 18th

Carmine Asparro

Principal in charge of the managed care consulting practice, OnPoint Partners

– “Provider and health plan strategies with Health Insurance Exchanges“

(a health care consultant presents cases on client HIE strategies)

Homework *  Jeanette Clough at Mount Auburn Hospital HBS 9-406-068

(a hospital CEO leads a  financial “turn-around” then faces new sustainability challenges)

Week 11 – February 25th

Jeffrey Menkes

Senior Vice President ,System Network Development, Montefiore Medical Center

– “Lessons Learned as a  “seller” now “buyer” under Obamacare“

(a senior health system executive discusses “selling” a hospital to a system, now expanding the continuum of care for a mega-system)

Case Study Method 7

Professor Metsch

“Associated Camps”

(a case study of failed strategic planning)

Week 12 –March 4th  

Student Case Study Presentations

– Groups of 3 -set by the class –

(but different from Harvard groups and any groups from first trimester courses)


Due: January 7th

First PP Draft: February 4th

Second PP Draft: February 25th

Case Presentations: March 4th

Post Final on Blackboard on: March 5th

Week 13

Final Lessons Learned Essay ,

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Some CASE STUDIES by category

To view the full portfolio of cases go to

Doctor, Did You Wash Your Hands?™


When I was appointed President and CEO of LibertyHealth/ Jersey City Medical Center in 1989 one of our goals was to become a top tier New Jersey teaching hospital.

If Columbus had an advisory committee he would probably still be at the dock. (A)

The Mystery of the Hospital CLAUSTROPHOBIA CLUSTER

We don’t know what we don’t know” (1) The challenge to emergency preparedness…..

Two years ago, while on vacation, my wife punctured her hand with a BBQ skewer. So she went to the nearest ER.

Confidential September 11, 2001 LESSONS LEARNED memorandum by hospital CEO Jonathan Metsch goes “viral” and becomes a New Jersey gubernatorial campaign issue

Trust but Verify” (Ronald Reagan) – Four Lessons Learned as a junior CEO back in the day..

DON’T DEPEND ON ANYONE ELSE TO BRING THE COFFEE! & other Lessons Learned as a junior hospital CEO back in the day….

Tomorrow morning’s Emergency Preparedness meeting (just scheduled for 8AM)

“If you don’t have a seat at the table, you’re probably on the menu.”


From REPEAL & REPLACE to WRECK & REJOICE (from Obamacare to Trumpcare)

“It leaves us with two laws… Call the first one Obamacare… Call the second one Trumpcare”

The new health care Gold Standard” GawandeCare”

“…what would it look like if Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos took the helm of a major integrated (health care) delivery system?”

Case Study on Disruption/Disintermediation in health care (10 posts)


When physicians opt out of Medicare they should reimburse Medicare for paying for their training

The Mayo Clinic is discriminating against Medicare Patients. Unbelievable! Outrageous!

A Medicare Conundrum: Observation status – Readmission penalties – Hospitalist handoff to primary care physician.

Should physicians be afforded Mulligans for non-reimbursable Medicare readmissions?


“…really targeting the depth of the opioid epidemic would require an infusion of federal dollars on par with the more than $20 billion a year spent on HIV/AIDs.”

PUBLIC HEALTH administrators can transform monumental unique challenges to “rapid response” opportunities. Think: Hurricanes Florence and Michael, the California wildfires, the mysterious polio-like illness, the opioid epidemic, mass shootings, and immigrant family separation.

President signs “Right to Try Act” – “Despite good intentions – right to try legislation grants no rights.”

“Right-to-try should not be right-to-die-poorer”


Stop the name games! University hospitals and regional medical centers should live up to their billing *

Are hospital quality/safety metrics used by payers & accrediting organizations getting ahead of the science of q/s measurement? (I)


Johns Hopkins All Children’s Hospital (St Petersburg, Florida) – problems in the hospital’s heart surgery unit

San Francisco General, a public hospital with San Francisco’s only trauma center, all commercial insurance is “out-of-network.”


You are a new member of the Board of University Medical Center and have been appointed chairperson of the Board’s Compliance Committee.

“…of the 1.5 million Americans who develop sepsis each year, nearly 260,000 die from it.” (A)


Have you met your interventional pathologist or interventional neurologist or interventional oncologist?

Can/should health care workers be fired for using appropriately prescribed medical or legally purchased recreational marijuana?

“Concurrent” Surgeries – Is it OK for a surgeon to operate in different ORs at the same time?

There’s a growing movement in the United States to install video cameras in operating rooms…

Concierge medicine is the all the rage but rather should we be enraged about it?

Do you want to be treated by a stranger when you are admitted to the hospital? Every practicing physician should have hospital privileges.

It’s like the Wild, Wild West, the (physician specialty) turf wars…. (A)

“Two-thirds of beneficiary communication is more complex to read than Moby Dick…” Let’s start with EOBs!


On July 4th as we respect and admire hospital staff members who are working 24/7, it is interesting to look at hospital care during the Revolutionary War

President Garfield didn’t die from an assassin’s bullet, but rather from a doctor’s dirty hands.”

posts related to these posts can be found throughout

Doctor, Did You Wash Your Hands?™
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Method of Preparing “Raw” Contemporaneous Cases

A. Spend some time looking at the case format at

B. To identify CCCS topics sign-up for daily automatic health care news feeds. For example:


2. MedPageToday

3. Becker’s Hospital Review

4. Healthcare Dive

5. FierceHealthcare

6. New York Times

7. Hospital Association Daily News Clips

C. Set up Google Alerts for example I am currently following: telehealth, sepsis, AI, block chain, Medicare For All, EMRs, precision medicine)

D. Then create a folder for each topic

E. Then every day from your News Feeds select articles on your topics and move them to the appropriate folder.

F. When you are inspired to write a “case” start a Word document, then go to the case folder and select key points from the articles, and cut and paste them to the Word document. As well capture article title, author and hyperlink.

G. Move the key points around until you have created a story.

H. Then label each point A,B.C…and move article title, author and hyperlink to footnotes at the end of the case.

I. Then write an introduction to the case.

J. Questions to t

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Case Study Teaching

I am retired from teaching so I asked Professor “GOOGLE” about getting up-to-date on Case Study teaching. Here’s what I found.

The Case Method

Cases are narratives, situations, select data samplings, or statements that present unresolved and provocative issues, situations, or questions (Indiana University Teaching Handbook, 2005). The case method is a participatory, discussion-based way of learning where students gain skills in critical thinking, communication, and group dynamics. It is a type of problem-based learning.

What is the Case Study Method?

How the Case Method Creates Value

Often, executives are surprised to discover that the objective of the case study is not to reach consensus, but to understand how different people use the same information to arrive at diverse conclusions. When you begin to understand the context, you can appreciate the reasons why those decisions were made. You can prepare for case discussions in several ways.

Using Case Studies to Teach

Advantages to the use of case studies in class

A major advantage of teaching with case studies is that the students are actively engaged in figuring out the principles by abstracting from the examples. This develops their skills in: Problem solving; Analytical tools, quantitative and/or qualitative, depending on the case; Decision making in complex situations; Coping with ambiguities

Teaching Case Studies Online: A Resource List

It’s difficult to find a good set of resources for teaching online case studies. While researching how to structure and moderate online case studies for one of our faculty members, I put together a list of several resources. Hopefully, you’ll find these a helpful place to start as you are learning to teach using case studies online.

Top 10 Free Training Courses for Online Teachers

Whether you’re new to distance learning or an experienced online teacher, you can find free online training resources to fit your needs.

Are you a “face to face” classroom teacher considering shifting to online education?

Or are you an online teacher interested in the latest technology to make your online courses more effective?

For example, some online schools offer free training modules to help campus-based teachers learn how to transition to cyber-classrooms. Other organizations offer tips on designing online classes and teaching with technology.

And Amazon has a number of books to look at t T

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“President Garfield didn’t die from an assassin’s bullet, but rather from a doctor’s dirty hands.”

Recently after a doctor’s appointment I went to a nearby lab to have blood drawn for routine tests. I asked the phlebotomist to wash her hands to which she replied she already had. She had washed her hands in another room after the last patient, done some other work, come into the room, put gloves on, then went and used a shared computer, before finally drawing blood. When I asked, she refused to wash her hands in front of me. So I refused to let her proceed. The same with the second tech. Finally the third washed her hands correctly in front of me. But not again before she left the room!
I reported this to the absentee owner!

Do you ask “Doctor, Did You Wash your Hands?” If not, why not?
Everyone knows, including our physicians, that proper hand washing is the most effective patient safety measure right?
Your physician and other clinicians (e.g. nurses, PTs, lab techs drawing blood) should wash their hands before and after each patient, both times in front of you.

First some history.
“Ignaz Semmelweis, a young Hungarian doctor working in the obstetrical ward of Vienna General Hospital in the late 1840s, was dismayed at the high death rate among his patients.
He had noticed that nearly 20% of the women under his and his colleagues’ care in “Division I” (physicians and male medical students) of the ward died shortly after childbirth. This phenomenon had come to be known as “childbed fever.” Alarmingly, Semmelweis noted that this death rate was four to five times greater than that in “Division II” (female midwifery students) of the ward.
One day, Semmelweis and some of his colleagues were in the autopsy room performing autopsies as they often did between deliveries. They were discussing their concerns about death rates from childbed fever.
One of Semmelweis’ friends was distracted by the conversation, and he punctured his finger with the scalpel. Days later, Semmelweis’ friend became quite sick, showing symptoms not unlike those of childbed fever. His friend’s ultimate death strengthened Semmelweis’ resolve to understand and prevent childbed fever.
In an effort to curtail the deaths in his ward due to childbed fever, Semmelweis instituted a strict hand washing policy amongst his colleagues in “Division I” of the ward. Everyone was required to wash their hands with chlorinated lime water prior to attending patients. Mortality rates immediately dropped from 18.3% to 1.3% in 1848 in Semmelweis’ division. (A)”

(1861) “…. Louis Pasteur was showing the world that microorganisms did indeed exist, that they acted on our world in myriad ways and that the ancient wisdom about “bad vapors” and spontaneous generation were wrong. Dead wrong. Prior to Pasteur and what would become known as “germ theory,” the prevailing theories held that organisms, like maggots and fleas, were spontaneously originated from other matter, like raw meat or diseased flesh…..
Pasteur is credited with opening the world’s eyes to the new science of microbiology and ushering in a brand new form of preventive medicine: immunization. …Building on what Pasteur was discovering, British surgeon Lister began to use this new germ theory to demonstrate the lifesaving value of disinfectant. Despite his skill at surgery, Lister knew that half his amputee patients would die of infection after the procedure…..
He began to treat his surgery equipment, before and after use, with carbolic acid. He also treated his patients’ wounds with it…..within two years, operative mortality decreased from nearly 50 percent to just 15 percent.” “Much of the greatness of Pasteur and Lister lies in their dogged persistence to spend 20 years convincing the rest of the medical world of the truth of their investigations,” ….. (B)

(1881) “What Dr. Towsend did next was something that Joseph Lister, despite years spent traveling the world, proving the source of infection and pleading with physicians to sterilize their hands and instruments, had been unable to prevent. As the president (Garfield) lay on the train station floor, one of the most germ-infested environments imaginable, Towsend inserted an unsterilized finger into the wound in his back, causing a small hemorrhage, and almost certainly introducing an infection that was far more lethal than Guiteau’s bullet.” (C)

“The shot in the back was not fatal, not hitting any vital organs. The bullet lodged behind the pancreas. “If they had just left him alone he almost certainly would have survived,” Millard said. Within minutes, doctors converged on the fallen president, using their fingers to poke and prod his open wounds. “Twelve different doctors inserted unsterilized fingers and instruments in Garfield’s back probing for this bullet,” Millard recounted, “and the first examination took place on the train station floor. I mean, you can’t imagine a more germ-infested environment.” American doctors at the time didn’t believe germs existed at all. And according to Dr. Jeffrey Reznick of the National Library of Medicine, they rejected the use of antiseptics pioneered by British surgeon Joseph Lister, for whom Listerine would later be named” (D)


“Hospital infections affect almost two million people in the United States every year, 100,000 of whom die. Up to 70 percent of these infections could be prevented if health care workers follow recommended protocols, which include hand hygiene….
“Why is it still so hard to get health care workers to wash their hands?
Active resisters are people who like doing things a certain way for the simple reason that things have always been done that way. During one site visit, an infectious diseases doctor involved in preventing infections told us:
Getting the surgeons to adopt things in general is problematic … they’re like baseball players, they’ve got superstitions…in their minds if it’s working, why should we change it.
But at least you know who these people are since they speak up at meetings and actively resist changing behavior.
The second type are what we termed organizational constipators. These individuals often have nothing against an initiative per se but simply enjoy exercising their power by refusing to change, albeit below the radar. The challenging aspect about organizational constipators is that the people above them think they are doing a good job, while those below them cannot believe they still have a job.
Yet another barrier we found in our research is that many hospitals have a culture of mediocrity rather than a culture of excellence. These hospitals are content to be just good enough. Leadership is generally ineffective. Overperformers are rewarded with more work.” (E)

“…this sobering truth. When bacteria lurking on, for instance, a medical device, a bed rail, a bandage or a caregiver’s hands find their way into a patient’s body via a surgical wound, a catheter, a ventilator, or some invasive procedure, the disturbingly frequent result is a serious, sometimes devastating, infection.” (F)

“Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) cost $9.8 billion per year, with surgical site infections alone accounting for one-third of those costs, followed closely by ventilator-associated pneumonia at 31.6 percent….” (G)

“Hands are the most common vehicle for transmission of organisms and “hand hygiene” is the single most effective means of preventing the horizontal transmission of infections among hospital patients and health care personnel. ” (H) (I)

“How dirty is your Qwerty?
It turns out that your computer keyboard could put a host of potentially harmful bacteria — including E. coli and staph — quite literally at your fingertips.
Sure, it may sound like a hypochondriac’s excuse to stay away from the office. But a growing body of research suggests that computer mice and keyboards are, in fact, prime real estate for germs.
It’s a phenomenon most recently illustrated by tests at a typical office environment in the United Kingdom. A consumer advocacy group commissioned the tests in which British microbiologist James Francis took a swab to 33 keyboards, a toilet seat and a toilet door handle at the publication’s London office in January.
Francis then tested the swabs to see what nasty germs he managed to pick up. He found that four of the keyboards tested were potential health hazards — and one had levels of germs five times higher than that found on the toilet seat.” (J)

“Question: I recently had an appointment with a medical specialist. I got called into the clinic room where I waited for the doctor; and I noticed a few “wash your hands” posters. When he came in, I swear he didn’t use the hand sanitizer. I couldn’t be sure. And I didn’t want to ask – but I was kind of grossed out. What should I have done? Is it okay to question the doctor about hand washing?
Answer: Your concerns about hand washing are certainly justified. Poor hand hygiene practices are largely to blame for the spread of germs within health care settings…
If you ever suspect that your doctor, nurse or other health care provider forgot to use the hand sanitizer, by all means raise the question. But, in reality, most patients in your situation are reluctant to do so.
“Very few people would ever be comfortable asking their health-care providers if they’ve cleaned their hands,” acknowledges Dr. Vearncombe. “Our patients feel very vulnerable,” she explains. “They are in an imbalanced power relationship with us, so it is really hard for them to ask.”
Indeed, some patients fear that their treatment could be jeopardized if they challenge the doctors and nurses on even routine matters such as hand hygiene. Their care will certainly not be affected, but it’s a worry for them nonetheless.
Surveys going back almost a decade found that Ontario patients didn’t want to be placed in the role of a police officer to ensure that doctors and nurses wash their hands.
As a result of these surveys, most of the hand-hygiene education in Ontario has focused on the health care providers themselves.
Since 2007-2008, Ontario hospitals have been required by provincial law to report their hand-hygiene rates. In some hospitals, such as Sunnybrook, designated staff members routinely observe interactions of health care providers with patients to track if they are actually washing their hands at the appropriate times.”
Before mandatory reporting took effect, a study carried out at a few hospitals had revealed that hand-hygiene compliance rates were “abysmally low,” notes Dr. Vearncombe.
The rate at Sunnybrook, for instance, was originally less than 40% – similar to many other hospitals. “We have made great increases in our hand-hygiene compliance, and the most recent results show our overall rate is now 87%.”..
A pilot study at Sunnybrook has been exploring what role patients could play.
Three of the hospital’s inpatient wards were selected for the pilot. As part of the study, an information card was placed on the bedside table whenever a room was cleaned and prepared for a new patient.
“This little card explained in lay language what to expect” when a health-care provider entered the patient’s room, says Dr. Vearncombe.
The cards stated that “Your care provider should clean their hands: 1) Before contact with you; 2) Before a procedure; 3) After a procedure; and 4) After contact with you.”
The cards also included the catchphrases: It’s okay to ask staff, ‘Did You Clean Your Hands?’ and Reminders help everyone!
So, the next time you suspect a health-care worker may have skipped the hand sanitizer, don’t hold back. Everyone benefits when fewer germs are spread around.” (K)

“At Denver Health Medical Center, the CenTrak monitoring system is used on two of the medical-surgical wards, the medical intensive care unit, and the step-down care unit. On these particular units, all rooms are single occupancy.
All nurses and healthcare technicians on these floors, as well as those on the float team, have badges. Additionally, select hospitalists, intensivists and residents also have badges to track their personal electronic hand hygiene adherence.
“We monitor both waterless hand sanitizer and soap dispensers,” Young explained. “We have defined adherence with the technology to be performing hand hygiene within 60 seconds before or after entering the room and within 60 seconds before or after leaving the room.”
Denver Health has used the electronic hand hygiene monitoring system as a means to both effect and measure change in hand hygiene. For example, it has used electronic hand hygiene to study the effect of poster placement on hand hygiene habits. It also has provided individual feedback to staff members on their hand hygiene rates and studied the change in electronic hand hygiene over time.
The hospital has achieved quite a success with baseline hand hygiene adherence rates nearly doubling. While Denver Health measures multiple hand hygiene workflows, this particular example of improved compliance was in regard to its wash-in/wash-out protocol – the requirement for staff to wash their hands upon entering a room and again after their interaction with a patient.
“Using data from the electronic hand hygiene compliance system, Denver Health was able to properly audit hand hygiene processes and provide additional training and education to staff where needed most,” said Young.” (L)
“The 70-page report, “Guide to Hand Hygiene Programs for Infection Prevention,” outlines an eight-step multimodal program that hospitals can follow to ensure hand-hygiene program success.
“It’s when all those components of hand-hygiene programs are working together effectively that we see the biggest change,” Timothy Landers, R.N., lead editor of the guide, said in a report announcement. However, the report makes it clear that without one component–the full support of hospital leadership–programs will continue to fail.
“Leadership’s commitment to hand hygiene must be visible and engaging–to the organization and the public through formal communication, hand-hygiene education, promotions, and event sponsorship,” the report said.
In addition to leadership support, the guide also recommends that hospitals follow these steps:
Establish ongoing monitoring and feedback on infection rates, such as tracking endemic and emerging drug resistant pathogens.
Create a multidisciplinary design and response team led by a senior administrator to emphasize that the organization is committed to hand-hygiene compliance.
Provide ongoing education and training for staff, patients, families and visitors. The report suggests the use of instructive posters, pocket cards and brochures for training.
Ensure hand-hygiene resources are accessible throughout the organization, including patient care corridors and at the entrance and exit of patient rooms.
Reinforce hand-hygiene behavior and accountability. Some organizations have success conducting contests and recognizing healthcare workers who comply with the guidelines.
Provide reminders throughout the healthcare setting. For example, the report suggests organizations provide real-time feedback from observers, coworkers, patients and visitors.
Develop an ongoing monitoring program that includes feedback. Some organizations, the report said, post monthly compliance data on hospital units or their hospitals’ Web sites and discuss the findings with staff during meetings.” (M)

“Most evaluation reviews are generated after a major, life-threatening error occurs, which usually happens infrequently. Historically, when an evaluation determined that a process completed by personnel was deficient, problem-solving efforts focused on the identification of the specific individual(s) who “caused” the problem. Later, quality improvement efforts focused on developing a culture of safety and recognized that additional contributions to errors were due to complex, poorly designed systems. The advantage of an evaluation that reviews system problems is that it encourages health care professionals to report adverse events and near misses that might be preventable in the future, while balancing the identification of system problems with holding individual providers responsible for their everyday practices. Improvement is impossible without evaluation reports to provide data on the factors that contribute to mistakes and lead to subsequent individual and system changes that support safer practices.
An evaluation strategy examining process measures include the following examples:
Document staff use of maximum sterile barriers (cap, mask, sterile gown, sterile gloves, large sterile sheet) and aseptic technique for the insertion of central intravenous catheters or guidewire exchange.
Document timing of antibiotic prophylaxis when used in surgical patients (e.g., within 1 hour of incision).
Document if hand hygiene is performed and clean or sterile gloves are worn before assessing a catheter insertion site or changing a dressing on intravascular catheters.
Document time elapsed from when patient culture (microbiology and susceptibility) results are reported and when the appropriate isolation precautions are instituted (patient room placement, signs, PPE used, disposable equipment used, medical record documentation, etc.).
Ensure that staff (nurses, doctors, and housekeeping) enter a contact isolation room using the specified personal protective barriers (e.g., gloves, gown) on each entry.
Ensure that staff properly remove PPE after leaving a patient’s room.
Assess the annual rates of influenza vaccination for health care workers and other personnel eligible to receive vaccination; assess the rates of influenza vaccination for patients.
Ensure that needle disposal containers are no more than three-quarters full at time of disposal.
Periodically monitor and record adherence with the hand hygiene guidelines: the number of times personnel washed their hands divided by the number of hand-hygiene opportunities, computed by ward or by service. Provide feedback to personnel regarding their performance.
Monitor the volume of alcohol-based hand rub (or detergent used for handwashing or hand antisepsis) used per 1,000 patient days.
When outbreaks of infection occur, assess the adequacy of health care worker hand hygiene.
When a patient with a known colonization or infection with a multidrug-resistant organism (e.g., MRSA, VRE) is transferred to your facility, evaluate effectiveness of system notification to health care personnel in the receiving facility.
Record compliance with hospital policy for catheter-site dressing changes.” (N)

“Hospitals have several different options to consider when monitoring compliance.
• Direct observation: This method involves monitoring the actual hand hygiene actions of staff. It can be done manually – with an actual person doing the monitoring – or it can be done with the assistance of technology such as smartphone apps. The smartphone apps can improve the likelihood of making covert observations and reduce the instances of Hawthorne effect, which is a social occurrence in which individuals alter or improve their behavior in response to their awareness of being observed.
• Measuring product use: This is an indirect way of conducting observations by quantifying the amount of soap and sanitizer used. Mathematical models can be used to determine how many hand hygiene opportunities there were versus how often staff actually took advantage of these opportunities.
• Electronic monitoring: Several different types of sensors are now available to measure handwashing compliance. While they can be expensive, a major benefit of electronic monitoring is it can provide administrators with real-time feedback on compliance prior to a healthcare worker’s interaction with patients.” (O)

“More than 5,200 nurses and other caregivers in 71 units at 42 hospitals across multiple states were given a radio frequency identification (RFID) badge that recorded when they triggered the ubiquitous sanitizer dispensers typically placed near the entrance to a room. Researchers monitored the tracking for as long as three and half years, ending in August 2013. There were an estimated 20 million hand-washing opportunities to study. The researchers focused on “total daily usage per unit bed,” a calculation in which the number of times total dispensers in a given hospital unit were used each day was divided by the number of beds in that unit.
Nice Start…
Personal tracking did indeed trigger an initial improvement. The daily usage of dispensers jumped from an average of 28.4 times per day in the 17 days before the tracking commenced, to 46 times a day at launch. Workers who did not receive a badge did not show any change in hand-washing habits.
…But No Sustained Momentum
Hand-washing continued to improve for more than a year and a half, but then peaked at month 20. As the graph above shows, three years into the project, usage had backslid to where it was in the first month.
That said, the researchers calculate that it would be a full 10 years of waning compliance before hand hygiene habits fell to where they were before the monitoring program was introduced – though a sub-50 compliance rate is no one’s idea of optimal.
Clearly, technology in a vacuum is not the solution. “Managers cannot simply ‘monitor and forget,'” the researchers wrote. “There is a need for ongoing managerial interventions to sustain the benefits of monitoring.” (P)

“HyGreen Inc., Gainesville, Fla., provides just-in-time coaching to health care workers when they forget to wash, and records the information in real time, says Elena Fraser, vice president of sales and marketing. “The instant the health care worker dispenses the hand wash, both the light-emitting diode on the top of the HHCM sensor and the badge turn green. At the same time, a wireless signal documents the worker identification, time and location and sends that information to the database,” she explains.
When the health care worker steps into a zone that is created by a monitor over the patient bed, the monitor recognizes that the badge is green. Again, time, location and worker ID are transmitted to the database. If the health care worker forgets to wash his or her hands, the bed monitor will cause the badge to vibrate, which serves as a subtle reminder.” (Q)

“Vanderbilt already had a traditional hand-hygiene program in place, but it was doing little to improve hand-washing rates. So the doctors took a different approach, focusing on three important areas:
Training. Every single hospital employee received training on correct hand-washing protocol, from clerical workers to chief surgeons. The training program placed much of its focus on the direct link between hand-washing and hospital-acquired infections.
Communication. Peer-to-peer communication was key to making the program work. Staff members were encouraged to speak up and remind each other of correct hand-washing practices if they noticed lapses. If someone received a reminder, the only correct response was “Thank you.”
Shared accountability. All staffers were held equally accountable for their unit’s success with achieving high hand-washing rates, even if they were visiting surgeons. Designated employees were tasked with monitoring how closely everyone followed established protocols, and units that didn’t meet established targets were encouraged to boost their performance as a whole. Staffers were also rewarded based on their collective performance in improving hand-washing rates.” (R)

“The My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene approach defines the key moments when health-care workers should perform hand hygiene.This evidence-based, field-tested, user-centred approach is designed to be easy to learn, logical and applicable in a wide range of settings. This approach recommends health-care workers to clean their hands; before touching a patient; before clean/aseptic procedures; after body fluid exposure/risk; after touching a patient, and; after touching patient surroundings.” (S)

Few scientific studies have evaluated measurement techniques; a recent review of the reliability and validity of hand hygiene measures found that only 28% of research articles and guidelines related to hand hygiene measurement included any mention of reliability or validity. Methodology between studies varies a great deal, including how adherence or non-adherence is defined and how observations are carried out; in addition, sufficient details concerning the methods and criteria used are often lacking.
The following are some of the specific challenges to measuring hand hygiene adherence: • Contact with patients and their environment takes place in many locations within organizations. • Opportunities for hand hygiene occur 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, 365 days a year and involve both clinical and nonclinical staff. • The frequency of hand hygiene opportunities varies by type of care provided, unit, and patient factors. • Monitoring is often resource intensive; infection preventionists, quality improvement staff, and other health care workers (for example, nursing, respiratory therapy) face numerous competing demands for their time and expertise. • Observer bias (such as the Hawthorne effect) is difficult to eliminate.” (T)

It’s a simple enough request, but for patients and families who feel vulnerable, scared or uncomfortable in a hospital room, the subject can be too intimidating to even bring up with a doctor or nurse: Have you washed your hands?
Hospitals are encouraging patients to be more assertive, amid growing concern about infections that are resistant to antibiotics.
Strict hand hygiene measures are the gold standard for reducing infections associated with health care. Acquired primarily in hospitals but also in nursing homes, outpatient surgery centers and even doctor’s offices, they affect more than one million patients and are linked to nearly 100,000 deaths a year, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The CDC aims to engage both patients and caregivers in preventing dangerous hospital infections. Centers for Disease Control.
Yet despite years of efforts to educate both clinicians and patients, studies show hospital staff on average comply with hand-washing protocols, including cleansing with soap and water or alcohol-based gels, only about 50% of the time. (U)

(2013) “At North Shore University Hospital on Long Island, motion sensors, like those used for burglar alarms, go off every time someone enters an intensive care room. The sensor triggers a video camera, which transmits its images halfway around the world to India, where workers are checking to see if doctors and nurses are performing a critical procedure: washing their hands.” (V)

(2012) “But there are skeptics. “Another potential issue with the video observation is a false accusation of failure to wash. Patient rooms and patients themselves are not being watched. Let’s say a nurse went into a patient’s room to tell him something and didn’t touch anything. A person in India watching a video from a camera focused on a door or sink would not be able to tell that. If the nurse doesn’t wash her hands when she leaves the room, is she going to be cross-examined? (W)

“Healthcare can benefit from the power of cameras to improve accountability,” Makary, Pawlik and Xu conclude. “In an era where 86% of nurses report having recently witnessed disruptive behavior at work, hand washing compliance remains highly variable, and many physicians do not use evidence based medicine, recorded video can be an invaluable quality improvement tool. If concerns about consent, privacy, and data security are dealt with carefully, video data can tell a story that simply cannot be matched by written documentation.” (X)

(D) How doctors killed President Garfield,
(E) Hand Washing Stops Infections, So Why Do Health Care Workers Skip It?, by Sanjay Saint,
(F) What Zero Looks Like: Eliminating Hospital-Acquired Infections,
(G) Hospital-acquired infections rack up $9.8B a year, by Julie Bird,
(H) Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections,
(I) Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections through Hand Hygiene,
(J) Your Keyboard: Dirtier Than a Toilet, by Dan Childs,
(K) It’s okay to ask your doctor: “Did you wash your hands?”, by Paul Taylor,
(L) Denver hospital deploys hand hygiene monitoring system to boost adherence, by Bill Siwicki,
(M) An 8-step strategy to improve hand-hygiene, by Ana Mulero,
(N) Chapter 41Preventing Health Care–Associated Infections, by Amy S. Collins,
(O) A culture of support: 4 ways to improve hand hygiene compliance, by Brian Zimmerman,
(P) Hospital Hand Washing: The Limits of Electronic Monitoring, by Carla Fried,
(Q) Hand hygiene monitoring, by Neal Lorenzi,
(R) Hand washing: How one hospital achieved nearly 100% compliance, by Jess White,
(S) My 5 Moments for Hand Hygiene, World Health Organization
(X) (X)

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You are Chief Preparedness Officer at Chiang Rai Region General Hospital in Thailand waiting for the twelve boys and their coach trapped in a cave

Assignment: How are you preparing for the treatment and rehabilitation of the boys and their coach

Prequel. August 24, 2017

We don’t know what we don’t know”.  The challenge to emergency preparedness…..

“Twelve boys and their soccer coach trapped in a cave in northern Thailand are in good health, authorities said Tuesday, but it is unclear when they will be able to leave the flooded cavern.

The boys, all members of a youth soccer team aged 11 to 16, and their assistant coach, aged 25, were found late Monday by rescue divers after a dramatic search lasting more than a week in the mountainous province of Chiang Rai.

Provincial Governor Narongsak Osottanakorn told reporters early Tuesday that all 13 of them had undergone health assessments and were found to be in good condition on a scale of “red, yellow and green.” Most were found to be in the green category…

Once extracted, the boys and their coach will be transferred to Chiang Rai Region General Hospital, where the entire 8th floor is being held for their arrival. Thirteen ambulances are on standby to transport them.

The boys are believed to have entered the Tham Luang cave after soccer practice with their assistant coach, Ekkapol Chantawong, on what was meant to be a half-day trek. But monsoon rains flooded several chambers and blocked their exit.

The saga of the trapped team has gripped the nation as search efforts snowballed from a small local team to a multinational emergency response. U.S. and Australian military personnel came to support Thai authorities, as well as technical experts from the U.K., China, Japan and elsewhere.” (A)

“Their skinny faces illuminated by a flashlight, the Thai soccer teammates stranded for nearly two weeks in a partly flooded cave said in a video released Wednesday that they were healthy, as heavy rains forecast for later this week threatened to complicate plans to safely extract the boys.

The 12 boys and their coach are seen in the video sitting with Thai navy SEALs in the dark cave. The boys, many wrapped in foil warming blankets, take turns introducing themselves, pressing their hands together in a traditional Thai greeting and saying their names and that they are healthy…

Authorities said the boys, who had also been shown Tuesday in a video shot by the British diver who discovered them, were being looked after by seven members of the Thai navy SEALs, including medics, who were staying with them inside the cave. They were mostly in stable condition and have received high-protein drinks.

In all of the videos, the boys appeared in good spirits. In the most recent video, a navy SEAL is shown treating minor cuts on the feet and legs of the boys with antibiotic ointment. Several of the boys are seen smiling as they interact with the navy SEAL, who cracks jokes.”

“On Tuesday, Thai officials told reporters that rescuers were providing health checks and treatment, and keeping the boys entertained, adding that none of those trapped were in a serious condition.

“They have been fed with easy-to-digest, high-energy food with vitamins and minerals, under the supervision of a doctor,” Rear Admiral Apagorn Youkonggaew, head of the Thai navy’s special forces, told reporters.” (C)


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You are a new member of the Board of University Medical Center and have been appointed chairperson of the Board’s Compliance Committee.

You were recruited due to concerns about two controversial challenges that apply to your organization.

How do you turn these “challenges into “opportunities?”

Find two other Compliance situations that need to be addressed.

Opportunity 1

“Not-for-profit health systems—no strangers to paying top dollar for talented executives—are using sophisticated methods to avoid the penalties on high employee compensation.

Effective tax year 2018, the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act imposes a 21% excise tax on not-for-profit compensation that exceeds $1 million, a threshold that encompasses just about all major not-for-profit health systems.

Total CEO pay, including bonuses, retirement and other benefits, across the top 25 largest not-for-profit health systems averaged about $5.1 million in 2016, the most recent year for which data are available. That’s up from $4.5 million in 2015.

The tax is significant. This year, a $5.1 million salary, for example, would hit a health system with a roughly $860,000 tax. Bernard Tyson, CEO of Oakland, Calif.-based Kaiser Permanente, made about $10 million in total compensation in 2016. A 21% tax on all of his pay over $1 million would be $1.9 million—perhaps not a huge hit to a $73 billion organization.

St. Louis-based SSM Health’s former CEO Bill Thompson made nearly $2 million in 2016, which would yield a roughly $200,000 tax this year. Again, likely not significant for a $6.5 billion operation…

The law also includes a calculation whereby health systems can be taxed for providing excessive parachute payments to high-paid employees upon their departures. Patrick Fry, who retired as Sutter Health’s CEO in January 2016, received $10.6 million in deferred retirement pay that year, bringing his total compensation to nearly $13.5 million…

Luckily for them, health systems have savvy tax experts recommending maneuvers that will reduce their exposure to the new tax. Even then, systems must tread carefully to ensure they’re staying within the law.”

to read the full article highlight and click on

Not-for-profit health systems working to get around tax on high exec pay, by Tara Bannow,

Opportunity 2

“Doctors and teaching hospitals raked in $8.4 billion in payments from drug companies last year, according to data recently released by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services…

The physicians who received research-related payments number in the hundreds of thousands — about 628,000, by CMS’s count. More generally, they received $2.1 billion overall during the year…

Meanwhile, drug company payments went to about 1,100 teaching hospitals, including $1 billion in research payments and $751 million in non-research payments…

The payments come despite the fact that many physicians, as well as consumers, consider drug companies and medical device manufacturers for rising healthcare costs. A study last fall by the Texas Medical Center Health Policy Institute in Houston found that 19 percent of physicians blame drug and device manufacturers for rising costs, while 47 percent blamed insurance companies.”

to read the full article highlight and click on

Doctors and hospitals got $8.4 billion in payments from drug companies in 2017, says CMS Of those payments, about $4.7 billion were related to research while $2.8 billion were non-research payments, by Jeff Lagasse,

“A drugmaker’s scheme to bolster sales of a potent painkiller with kickbacks to doctors has caused legal problems for the company but has left largely unscathed the physicians who pushed the drug on their patients.

Insys Therapeutics has been sued by state and local governments, private insurance companies and patients. Several former company executives have been indicted or convicted for their roles in bribing doctors to prescribe the fentanyl spray, Subsys.

At least a dozen civil lawsuits accuse individual doctors of accepting kickbacks from Insys to prescribe the drug which is 100 times more potent that morphine.

Those doctors prescribed the drug – intended only for those with cancer pain – to patients with other ailments, leading to harmful addiction and, in some cases, death.

Yet many of the doctors who benefited the most from the Arizona-based drug company’s payouts still practice medicine without consequences, a national Raycom Media investigation found. Insys did not respond to requests for comment…

“When a pain management guy is getting $100,000 to go to these dinners and they’re prescribing this for elbow pain or that hip pain, that’s criminal,” said Randy Hood, a South Carolina lawyer who represents several patients suing doctors who prescribed Subsys.

Speaker fees and other payments to doctors are legal unless they are connected to the volume of drugs physicians prescribe, according to the federal anti-kickback law…

Between 2013 and 2016, Insys paid 126 doctors at least $50,000 each in speakers’ fees and for travel, entertainment or consulting, Raycom Media’s analysis of federal physicians’ payments found.

Raycom mailed each of the doctors a letter with their payment and prescription histories and asked them to comment.

The payments to these doctors may not be nefarious. One oncologist, who never prescribed Subsys, said he was paid nearly $114,000 for food, travel and clinical development services.

Collectively, Insys paid the doctors more than $14 million…

Of the highest paid doctors, only 18 were oncologists.

Nearly 60 percent were pain specialists. Eight were general practice doctors such as family physicians or internal medicine specialists. Two were sports medicine doctors…”

to read the full article highlight and click on

Doctors escape punishment for profiting off prescribing opioids to those who don’t need them, by Jill Riepenhoff and Megan Luther,

“A new report finds a large percentage of panel members that review drug applications for the Food and Drug Administration accept payments and other rewards from companies after their drugs are approved. The report led by investigative correspondent Charles Piller appears in today’s issue of the journal Science.

Piller and colleagues looked into the practice of drug developers providing financial benefits to members of FDA advisory committees after the panels review drug applications and vote to recommend approval. Advisory committees, often comprised of physicians and academic scientists, are recruited by FDA to independently evaluate drug applications in addition to the agency’s professional staff. While FDA does not always follow the assessments of these committees, an endorsement from these panels is often a predictor of FDA approval.

The Science team looked into advisory panels that recommended approval of 28 cardiovascular/renal or psychopharmacologic drugs as well as treatments for arthritis from 2008 to 2014, and were later approved by FDA. The reporters matched up participants on these panels to payments listed in the Open Payments database, collected by Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, from 2013 to 2016. The team also scanned conflict-of-interest disclosures in scientific and medical journals, at least those not behind paywalls. (Editor’s note: Much of Science magazine’s content is behind a paywall.) In their inquiries, the reporters looked for payments from the companies whose products were reviewed, as well as competitors of those companies making similar drugs.

The team found 107 advisers taking part in the committees and recommending the 28 drugs for FDA approval. Of the 107 participants, 40 — or 37 percent — received payments of $10,000 or more in compensation or research support after they voted to approve the drugs, either from the developers of the drugs or from competitors. In addition, 26 of the committee participants earned at least $100,000 from these companies, and 7 gained $1 million or more. The reporters also found the 17 top earning advisers, those making $300,000 or more, took in a total of $26 million over this period, of which nearly all, 94 percent, came from the companies making the products they reviewed or competitors.

An FDA spokesperson told Science in a statement that advisory committee members must disclose prospective employers, but not anticipated payments…”

To read the full article highlight and click on

DA Reviewers Found Accepting Industry Payments After Drug Approvals,

Open Payments is a national disclosure program that promotes a more transparent and accountable health care system by making the financial relationships between applicable manufacturers and group purchasing organizations (GPOs) and health care providers (physicians and teaching hospitals) available to the public. oc:e},”next”===

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